Cloudkida multi tenant architecture serverless application

Development of Multi tenant Application

Cloudkida multi tenant serverless application

An efficient platform to create, provide, deliver and monitor the hands-on labs developed by CloudKida Pvt. Ltd. (INDIA)

CloudKida offers a wide variety of the labs as services. Our focus on No upfront investment, No worry about licence, No hardware procurement and maintenance, access from anywhere, highly scalable model for all our customers and users. CloudKida Labs are for every single person who is interested to develop / reskill / update / upgrade hands-on skills for Enterprise, Corporates, Universities, Schools, Professionals, Consultants, individuals and all.


Developing a Software as a Service (SaaS)  multi tenant platform presents several challenges:

  1. Multi-tenancy: Building a system that supports multiple tenants (organisations or users) while maintaining data isolation, customization options, and performance. Cloudkida multi-tenant architecture should be extended to white labelling for tenants.
  2. Scalability: Ensuring the platform can handle increasing user loads and data volumes without sacrificing performance or reliability.
  3. Security: Implementing robust security measures to protect user data and privacy, including encryption, access controls, and compliance with regulations.
  4. Integration: Facilitating seamless integration with third-party services and APIs to enhance functionality and interoperability.
  5. Securely exposed API, so it can be seamlessly integrated to the third party application.
  6. Maintenance and Updates: Establishing processes for regular maintenance, bug fixes, and updates to keep the platform running smoothly and securely over time.
  7. Cost Management: Balancing the cost of infrastructure, development, and support to ensure the platform remains financially sustainable while delivering value to users.
  8. Provisioning hundreds of thousands accounts dynamically as tenant users on starting each lab.

Addressing these challenges requires careful planning, expertise in software engineering, and a commitment to ongoing improvement and innovation.

Solution to meet challenges

The solution developed is based on AWS SAAS Factory Framework.

Tenant Management

Step 1 : The sign-up process for a tenant is a combination of few steps. The tenant uses the sign-up application to access the registration page, where they provide their information, along with the tier they intend to sign-up for. This kicks of the registration process by invoking the “registration” endpoint inside API Gateway, as shown in below figure.

Step 2 of the flow invokes the User Management service to create a new tenant admin user. We have used Amazon Cognito as our identity provider. For Platinum tier tenants, you’ll notice that a separate user pool is provisioned for each tenant. For other tiers, the User Management service will create a Cognito UserGroup inside the pooled user pool for that tenant. Finally, a tenant admin user is created for the tenant inside the user pool.


Step 3 will then call the Tenant Management service to store tenant details. We also store the user pool information for the tenant, based upon the data collected from the prior step. The Tenant details also includes the API key, based upon the tenant tier selected.

Finally in step 4, Tenant Provisioning service is used to provision any tenant specific infrastructure for Platinum/silo tenants. It makes use of AWS CodePipeline to manage the deployment of tenant specific application services.

Authentication Flow

The following is a breakdown of the steps that are part of this authentication and routing experience:

  • Step 1 – the tenant user is required to enter the tenant’s name as part of the login process. This tenant name is the same as provided during the registration process.
  • Step 2 – the tenant name is used to retrieve tenant specific information, namely user pool id, app client id and API Gateway URL.
  • Step 3 – this tenant specific information is passed onto the SaaS web application, which uses it to initialize the authorization code with these settings. This experience can be modified according to your needs. As an example, you can ask for user email address and use the email domain name to retrieve the necessary information. Another way could be to create subdomain for each tenant, such as
  • Step 4 – the application will be redirected to the Cognito hosted UI, associated with the tenant. This is where the user is required to provide his username and password.
  • Step 5 and 6 – these are a representation of the authorization code grant flow of Cognito. Cognito uses username and password to authenticate against the user pool. Once the login information is successfully validated, it issues an OAuth code in return. This OAuth code is sent back to Cognito which in return issues a JWT token.
  • Step 7 – shows how you can use the JWT token to authenticate against your microservices.

Authentication and Authorization:

For the serverless SaaS solution, we have used a Lambda Authorizer as part of the authentication and authorization model of the environment. Once authenticated, Cognito issues a JWT token that is passed with each request that is processed by the API Gateway.

Step 1 and Step 2 are a representation of authentication flow that happens between the web application and Cognito Hosted UI. Once authenticated, the user is provided a JWT token that is used to invoke the API, as depicted in Step 3.

The Lambda authorizer further carries out a series of steps to validate and authorize the request, as highlighted in Step 4 above.

The first action is to validate whether the JWT is valid or not. This is achieved by validating the JWT against the user pool. Once validated, the authorizer then extracts the UserRole and TenantId from the validated Custom Claims.

This authorizer further allows specific API Gateway methods/routes based upon the user’s role. As an example, only system admin can make a request to get all of the system’s tenants.

The authorizer is also used to acquire API keys (that connect to usage plans). This is achieved by setting the API key source of our APIs as AUTHORIZER. This means that the authorizer is responsible for associating the API key with each incoming request.

The Lambda authorizer is also essential to the overall tenant isolation model of the SaaS reference solution. The idea here was to move the acquisition of isolation policies to the API Gateway authorizer (instead of doing this in each lambda function).

The basic approach here is to examine your tenant context and generate the tenant-scoped credentials that would control your access to other resources (storage, etc.). In this scenario, the authorizer will dynamically generate the IAM policies from the tenant context and acquire the short-lived credentials that will be used to enforce your tenant isolation.

As shown in Step 5, Lambda authorizer will now authorize the user and apply the Usage plan based on the API key returned by the authorizer. The authorizer also provides the short-lived credentials to the downstream Lambda function as part of the Lambda context. As shown in

Step 6, Lambda uses this to enforce tenant level isolation.

Tenant Isolation

Once the credentials are passed to a function of your microservice, you can then use the supplied credentials as you access tenant resources. The application of tenant isolation also varies by tenant tier, as shown in Figure below.

For pooled tenants, the lambda function uses the secret and access key provided by the Lambda Authorizer. As mentioned above, these credentials are scoped to access data for the current tenant only.

The strategy for silo tenants differs a bit, since we are provisioning siloed tables for each tenant. There is no need to apply the scoped credentials while accessing the DynamoDB table. Instead, the tenant execution role, applied during provisioning of lambda functions, restricts access to the specific table provisioned for that tenant.

At Cloudkida, two tenant strategies were implemented.

  1. Default tenants : It is shared tenants for individual users.
  2. Isolated Tenant : This is for the organisation so they can manage the complete Cloudkida tenant. User, Labs, Groups, Policies, Payments etc.

The technology stack used are :

  1. Frontend React
  2. Backend python
  3. NoSQL databases


The AWS serverless track is selected for the Cloudkida platform

  • AWS Cognito for Authentication
  • AWS Lambda custom authorizer for Access Management
  • API Gateway for security, scalability and performance.
  • DynamoDB as serverless no sql database.
  • Lambda as primary computes
  • Step functions to manage workflow
  • AWS Organization for managing hundreds of thousand accounts dynamically.
  • Custom Dynamodb tables as per the SaaS factory reference architecture to map tenant to cognito userpool
  • Micro services modern architecture for ease of management, rapid development, security, ease of code management, devops.
  • S3 to host static content
  • Cloudfront to cache content
  • SQS for queuing
  • SES for email


Electromech implemented SaaS factory reference architecture with AWS serverless services and below benefit achieved.

The AWS SaaS Factory Serverless Framework offers several advantages for building and deploying software as a service (SaaS) applications:

    1. Multi-tenant architecture: Achieved very well as per the requirements.
    2. Micro Service Architecture : Serverless Micro service architecture, gives benefit ease of management of application. Overall 29 micro services are implemented at the time of creating these documents.
    3. Serverless Scalability: Serverless architecture automatically scales resources based on demand, allowing your SaaS application to handle varying workloads efficiently without the need for manual intervention. It is tested for 400 concurent users at the
    4. Cost-Efficiency: With serverless computing, you only pay for the resources you use on a per-execution basis, eliminating the cost of idle resources. This pay-as-you-go model can result in significant cost savings, especially for SaaS applications with unpredictable or variable usage patterns.
    5. Reduced Operational Overhead: By offloading infrastructure management tasks to serverless managed services, such as provisioning, scaling, patching, and maintenance, developers can focus more on building and improving the core functionality of their SaaS application rather than managing infrastructure.
    6. Faster Time to Market: The AWS SaaS Factory Serverless Framework provides pre-built components, templates, and best practices for building serverless SaaS applications, enabling developers to rapidly prototype, iterate, and deploy new features, ultimately accelerating time to market.
    7. High Availability and Fault Tolerance: With the help of Electromech AWS serverless services, such as AWS Lambda, Amazon API Gateway, and Amazon DynamoDB, are used which are inherently designed for high availability and fault tolerance. They automatically handle infrastructure provisioning, load balancing, and failover, ensuring that your SaaS application remains available and resilient even in the face of failures or traffic spikes.
    8. Integration with AWS Ecosystem: Electromech also leverage The AWS SaaS Factory Serverless Framework seamlessly integration with other AWS services, such as Amazon S3, Amazon SQS, and Amazon SNS, Amazon Step functions allowed developers to leverage a wide range of cloud-native services to enhance the functionality and scalability of the SaaS applications.
    9. Security: With the help of Electromech team the solution developed provides a robust security model, including built-in authentication, authorization, encryption, and compliance features, to help developers secure their SaaS applications and protect sensitive data.


With Electromech help, Cloudkida Pvt. Ltd. achieved and delivered the goal of multi-tenant architecture on AWS serverless platform which can provide not only all the functionality but with robust reliability, security, performance, ease of operational monitoring and management with the most cost effective environment.

29 serverless microservices created

1 default tenant

Automated onboarding of tenants achieved.